Flow cytometry of nucleated red blood cells used as monitoring technique for aquatic risk assessment. A review. Print
Written by Bratosin D., Dobre A-M, Rugina A., Calu L., Tuşa I., Toader L., Stan L., Covaci A., Petrescu C-M, Stana I.O., Turcuş V., Ardelean A., Slomianny C., Marinescu A.G.   
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Article Title: Flow cytometry of nucleated red blood cells used as monitoring technique for aquatic risk assessment. A review.
Authors: Bratosin D., Dobre A-M, Rugina A., Calu L., Tuşa I., Toader L., Stan L., Covaci A., Petrescu C-M, Stana I.O., Turcuş V., Ardelean A., Slomianny C., Marinescu A.G.
Affiliation: 1National Institute for Biological Science Research and Development, Bucharest, Romania 2 Institute of Life Sciences, ”Vasile Goldis” Western University of Arad, Romania 3 Faculty of Medicine, Biology Department, ”Vasile Goldis” Western University of Arad, Romania 4Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille 1, Centre Commun de Mesures et Imagerie Cellulaire, Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex, France 5 University of Pitesti, Department of Ecology and Environment Protection, Pitesti, Romania
Abstract: During the last decades anthropogenic factors led to a significant enhancement of pollutants in aquatic environment and for several years, chemicals analysis has been commonly employed. These techniques cannot detect and quantify many environmental phenomena such as bioavailability, bioaccumulation and synergistic effects. For these reasons, many investigations for evaluating the effects of xenobiotic on organisms use in vitro or in vivo bioassays. The bioassays give a global response for all chemicals present in the environment and these represent one of the best ways to estimate the risk assessment of pollutants in environment for monitoring. For assessing cytotoxicity or ecotoxicity of pollutants (heavy metals, nanoparticles, etc.) and to assess aquatic pollution degree and biomonitoring of Danube River and Danube Delta, we developed a new experimental cell system based on the apoptosis of nucleated erythrocytes from fishes and batrachians which are directly exposed to pollutants absorbed by different ways. Despite their structural simplicity, the erythrocytes of lower vertebrates preserve nucleus and mitochondria, both the sensors of the programmed cell death (PCD) machinery to develop an apoptosis phenomenon. Our proposed bioassays which are based on the apoptosis phenomenon as induced biomarker by pollutants on fish or amphibians erythrocytes, evidenced by flow cytometry (apoptosis/necrosis discriminated by FITC-annexin-V labeling/PI and cellular viability measured with calcein-AM method) could be rapid and very sensitive tests for in laboratory aquatic risk assessment and biomonitoring. Standardization and application of these tests will surely provide the opportunity of their use easily in ecotoxicological laboratories, biomonitoring of large river basins such as the Danube River Basin and will be also able deliver information on fish as a food product.
Keywords: nanoparticles; nucleated erythrocytes; apoptosis; cell viability; flow cytometry; toxicity; ecotoxicology;  nanomaterials.
*Correspondence: Daniela Bratosin , National Institute for Biological Science Research and Development, Bucharest, Romania 296 Spl. Independentei , 060031-Bucharest, Romania, This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it